Tibet is a land of mountains, with the Tanggula range to the north, the Himalayas to the south, the Henduan Mountains to the east, the Kunlun Mountains to the west, and the Nyainqentanglha and Kangdese ranges in the center. The Himalayas are a group of mountain ranges running roughly parallel to one another in an east-west direction on the southern edge of the Tibet Plateau along China's border with India and Nepal. The mountains run for 2,400 kilometers at a-width of 200 to 300 kilometers and altitudes averaging over 6,000 meters. Mount Qomolangma, the world's highest peak with an elevation of 8848.13 meters, rises. Four peaks each with an elevation of over 8.000 meters and 38 peaks each over 7.000 meters can be found in the more than 5.000 square kilometers surrounding Qomolangma. Lozi, the world's fourth highest peak, rises some 8,501 meters in the south; Markalu, the world's fifth highest peak at 8,470 meters, lies to the east; Qowowuyag, the seventh highest peak at 8,153 meters, to the west; and Xixabangma, which lies still further to the west, soars to 8,012 meters. Nonetheless, the unique scenery of Qomolangma continues to lead the long list of majestic peaks in attracting worldwide attention. Clouds, which often envelope Qomolangma like a shroud, sometimes appear to surge by like a tidal wave, at other times drift gently away like smoke from a chimney, or on still other occasions appear as mysterious as a veiled beauty. Visitors often sit patiently at the foot of Qomolangma for hours simply to catch a glimpse of the spectacular scenes.
More than 20 rivers, with drainage areas in excess of 10,000 square kilometers, are in Tibet. Great rivers of Asia that find their origin in Tibet include the Ganges, Hindus, Brahmaputra, Mekong, Salween and Ilrrawaddv. These rivers for the most part arise from rains, melted ice and snow and underground water; hence their water is of excellent quality.
Tibetans refer to the Yarlung Zangbo River, the longest river in the region, as the "Cradle of Tibet" or the "Mother River." The Yarlung Zhangbo means "snow water from high mountains" in the Tibetan language, meanders some 2,091 km within the borders of Tibet. Yarlung Zangbo River has its source in the alter flowing through Lhoyuand entering India it is known as the Brahmaputra. With the drainage area of more than 240.000 square kilometers at an approximate average altitude of 4.500 meters high, is the world's highest-altitude river. The 370-kilometer Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon, with a depth of 5.382 meters, is the world's deepest Canyon. It is only 74 meters wide at the narrowest point along its base and 200 meters at the widest.
Most alpine lakes in the highlands are fed by water flowing from the melting snow on mountains. Namtso Lake, the largest holy lake in the region, lies in northern Tibet. The lake covers 1,920 square km and features crystal clear blue water. The water clarity of Tibet's lakes most often reaches depths of between 10-14 meters. The Mapam Yumco Lake in Ngari sits at the highest altitude of any lake in the world. The holy lake attracts an endless flow of pilgrims from Nepal and India, and is famous for its natural scenery which includes large flocks of sheep and herds of cows grazing on lush grass, as well as the untold number of ducks and swans living in their natural habitat on the numerous islets..